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Change Your Handwriting the Easy Way

January 23rd, 2016 No comments

handwritingDoes your handwriting style look like the one of a stereotypical doctor? Does your elementary school niece have a more readable writing than you? Bad quality handwriting can affect both academic and professional life, making you feel embarrassed. Instead of letting it become messy, you should find out how to improve your handwriting through the ways provided below.

Examine Your Handwriting

Open a notebook and make sure to carefully write the whole alphabet from A to Z. This will help you to reveal your weak and strong points. Do you make your O’s look like Q’s? Do some letters seem to have the wrong form? Highlight the letters that you have the most trouble with and work on improving the way you write them. Do you notice that your handwriting slopes forward or backwards? Conventionally, the handwriting should slope a bit forward in order to guide the reader in the direction he’s reading.

Train the Correct Muscle Groups

Usually people, who have poor handwriting style, simply have never tried training particular groups of muscles in their shoulders, arms and hands. Make sure you don’t “draw” the letters with your palm, but write them by moving your arm right up to the shoulder. The easiest way to practice this is to write not on the paper, but in the air with your finger. Thus, all the muscle groups in your shoulder and arm will work. This in turn will enhance your handwriting and it won’t look messy anymore.

Start Slowly

Focus on writing the letters shaping them well. Once you can produce the best looking ones, you will have an opportunity to keep your handwriting style attractive, while speeding the process up. Mind that the letters should have an equal size.

Imitate the Handwriting You Admire

If there’s a particular handwriting style you wish to adopt, make sure to get some tracing paper and imitate it. The point is, the more you copy it, the easier it will be to adopt all of the elements you especially admire and use them in your own script. Keep the page with the handwriting you like in front of you for inspiration.

Switch from Typing to Handwriting

Even though living in a digital era has many advantages, ensure to pass up the option to type the letter to your friend or an academic essay, and instead write the work with your hands. Switching to handwriting will be the number one practice that will enable you to change your handwriting style for the better. It may require more time, but the results will be pretty impressive!

Practice Regularly

Give yourself enough time to use your handwriting. Make sure to do it daily using the so-called journal. Simply write on what happens in your everyday life or what feelings you’re getting through at the moment.

This should help you. These simple tips will soon help you achieve your goal and shape your handwriting the way you want it.

7 Steps to a Perfect Summary of Your Research Paper

December 16th, 2015 No comments

writing the essayTo accomplish a research paper perfectly one should take some essential steps. Doing a thorough research summary is an integral part of the process. In order to complete a perfect summary, one first should get the paper done. Then, check all of key ideas, and pack them into a short document.

Review Your Report

The best way to start working on the research paper summary is by conducting a detailed review of the project. As you dig deeper into it, make sure to extract the key ideas. In case you have organized your research project with headings and sections, the work will go faster and easier. When you focus on the main ideas of the report, stick to the essence of the idea to limit the point. If not, you will get drawn in an endless sea of information and your summary will turn into a mess.

Do the Literature Review

Go on with the literature review. Make certain to list down the most important arguments taken from the literature that has been reviewed in the research project, whether they support or go against the paper you’re summarizing.

Provide a Thesis Statement

If you want to create a perfectly-written summary, this is a must. Make certain to produce a thesis statement that clearly claims what you’re willing to achieve through your paper.

Follow Three Key Requirements

When working on a summary for your research project, there are three basic requirements to write in accordance with. First, the summary must cover the original as a whole. Second, this piece of text should be a condensed extract. And finally, the summary must be presented as the filtered and brief version of the material, discussed with your own words.

Provide the First Draft

Adjust the length of the first draft in accordance with the content order of the paper and how you’re going to use the summary later. Make sure to write about the methods, hypotheses and the results first, then go on to the introduction and discussion.

NEVER Make Unnecessary Remarks

Keep away from unnecessary and pointless remarks that have nothing to do with the research paper content while writing summaries. Do your best to write only on what is included in the project and, more importantly, keep to the point.

Put Your Opinion Aside

There is no need to provide your own points of view on the research paper. Keep in mind that you are not working on the position paper, but on a research paper summary.   

When you get to the research paper summary writing point, there are two things you should remember. The first is the importance of being brief. In case you give too many details, your reader will most likely lose his/her motivation to proceed to the full version of the project. Second, use the terms that require no explanation since any sort of extra definitions will only make your summary too long.

Repetition in Writing Is Bad. So, Let’s Call It “Parallelism”

December 16th, 2015 No comments

stylistic devicesParallelism is a special tool that is used to make some of the moments in literature both – alluring and memorable. Make sure to know all the points that make parallelism such a crucial and powerful device.

Have you ever wondered why some of the quotations are easier to keep in mind than the others? Why some of the speeches leave more significant impact than the ones delivered by the other people? Just take a look at the famous speech of Martin Luther King – “I Have a Dream”. Just read the following: “‘I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today?

Without a doubt, you do not remember the speech from A to Z, but you may know some of its parts, as well as the ultimate point that King’s speech was famous for. To cut the story, the success of the King’s speech is due to its part that includes a fantastic use of parallelism. When the matter concerns parallelism, the question is about a special literary device, in which the sentence segments are grammatically the same or are pretty similar in its construction. It can be any phrase, word or even the whole sentence that can be repeated. The widely known “I have a dream” repetition from the King’s speech turns the speech into a rhythmic and charming piece, as well as never-to-be-forgotten.

The classification of repetition is maintained in accordance with the compositional patterns. There are actually nine different patterns but we will discuss several of them within the frames of repetition.


This is what they call anaphoric repetition or the repetition of any phrase or any word that is placed at the beginning of several consecutive sentences (better for her, better for him). Rather often the anaphoric repetition is used in poetry than in the prose.


When it comes to epiphora, the matter relates to the epiphoric repetition, which is the kind of repetition, when the same phrase or the same word is placed at the consecutive sentences end. This literature tool contributes even more to the rhythmic organization of a speech since the intonation increases and there’s solid identity at the sentences final position. A good example of epiphora can be viewed in the famous TV series “Dr. House”, when Dr. Wilson says: “I’ve gottа be your dаmn conscience. I’m tired of being your conscience. I don’t enjoy being your conscience” to his colleague.


Framing is considered a kind of repetition that is built in the form of a frame, that is to say – the syntactical unit initial parts, usually in a paragraph and are repeated right at the paragraph end.

Chain repetition

“They strangers, and we strangers; they a pair,

And we a solitary pair like them.” (William Wordsworth). That’s the example of what they call chain repetition. This kind of repetition is used to smoothly develop logical reasoning. In other words, the writer is actually arranging a thread of a couple of successive anadiplosis.

In conclusion it can be said that all exiting kinds of repetition have their own emotional loading that sometimes is supposed to cause strong emotions, in other words – to make emotions arise subconsciously.

Grey Literature or Academic Writing?

September 3rd, 2015 No comments

academic writingWhat is grey literature? According to some of the available definitions on the web, grey literature is the one that is generated on each of the levels of business, government, industry and academic segments in both – electronic and print formats, but that is not kept under control of commercial publishers.

In addition to the definition provided above, grey literature has also been called the one that includes everything with an exception for peer-viewed journals and books that are accepted by Medline. It is important to mention that grey literature has not been published in the conventional way, and what is more, it is pretty hard to identify and obtain by means of the usual routes. Exactly for this very reason this issue is called “grey literature”.

This kind of literature includes a great variety of material including statistical and government publications, fact sheets, reports, working papers, newsletters, policy documents, technical reports and bibliographies.

Papers are usually provided to inform various funding bodies regarding the research projects results or to show up preliminary results during conferences. This kind of material is quickly disseminated, usually in limited numbers, and typically it does not undergo any process of formal publication. Even in case it hasn’t been checked by the peer, the content it includes is still pretty useful and the creators of the regular literature searches need to do their best in order to identify this literature type.

Nonetheless, the process of both – identifying and tracing this kind of literature makes us face with the several challenges. Basic details like the date of publication, the author, the publishing body may be difficult to discern, making it not easy to locate and then cite various documents.  As for the low print runs, it may be quite hard to locate. This has not much to do with internet publishing, but with organizational and government reports. The lack of control from the editorial side may cause the raising of a bunch of questions regarding the uniqueness and trustworthiness of documents.

When the question is about the producers of the grey literature, a great number of organizations generate a wide range of grey literature that is relevant to health policy, public health and epidemiology. These typically include not-for-profit organizations, government health agencies (the National Institutes for Health in the USA; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; the Department of Health in United Kingdom), universities, health institutes, research centers, international agencies (UNAIDS and WHO (World Health Organization), special interest groups, etc.

There are debates about what place the web search engines take in the literature searching, and the experts tend to have strong disputes and some of them state that it is not a trustworthy source of information. But the thing is that in reality, the World Wide Web provides multiple opportunities to get an instant access to the grey literature. Search engines like Google have turned into significant resource of grey literature that is available for a great audience all over the globe.

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Logical Assumptions with Modal Verbs in Academic Writing

August 28th, 2015 No comments

queue in data structureMore often than not, logical assumptions are used in academic writing. This article is dedicated to the using of modal verbs for deduction, certainty and probability. When the question is about “deduction”, it means using all information that is available to draw certain conclusions on these or that facts.

Depending on what kind of information you have, you may be more assured that all of your conclusions are related to real life, or less assured that your conclusions are valid – and we make use of various modal verbs in order to define the degree of your certainty.

Deductions about the present

When you are going to make some deductions about the present, make sure to use “must” if you’re 100% sure that something is true and “can’t” in case you’re absolutely sure that something is impossible. For instance, if you see a guy, you may say “He must be a policeman” if you’re very certain about that because of his uniform. And “He can’t be a painter” since we’re certain he is NOT a painter.

Certainty about the days that have gone

When we take into account some present evidence and provide reasonably certain conclusions about the events that took place in the past, it is required to use “must have” and “couldn’t have” together with the verb in the past participle form. The “must have + past participle” example regarding the conclusions about something that did happen: “Ronda got a tan. She must have spent a lot of time on the beach”. As for the “must not have + past participle” construction (when we give the conclusions that something didn’t happen, the example will sound as:  “The mail box is still empty. James must not have sent the letter yet”.  And finally, the construction “couldn’t have + past participle” example: “George couldn’t have taken your purse; he wasn’t even in a room yesterday”.

Certainty about the days to come

When we are making deductions on the future, it’s the same as when we made predictions. Just like you have been told about the future tenses during the school lessons, one can use “going to” or “will” in order to say what we believe is going to happen in the future.  When an individual is 100% sure that his predictions are correct, he can add the word “definitely” in order to put emphasis on his certainty. For instance, “Mike’s definitely going to love this movie – it’s with his favourite Hollywood actor”.

Make sure to take into consideration the following slightly more formal expressions that one can make use of in order to talk about the future with certainty. This is what we use to state that something “is certain to” happen or when something “is sure to” happen. For example, “Sociology experts are certain to provide the results of the surveys even faster than before” or “The country is sure to take part in this global arrangement”.

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Hedging: a Tool to Make Your Essay Academic

August 14th, 2015 No comments

academic writingAcademic writing has a variety of linguistic means and today we are going to examine one of them in detail. There are times when the writer has to use a so called tentative language which is per se an unassertive way of making claims and interpreting ideas so to say. This way the author sounds less categorical regarding borrowed opinions and general facts. This linguistic tool is called hedging and is applied in academic writing in order to distance oneself from stating uncorroborated facts. As a result, besides its formality, hedging is an impersonal construction devoid of pronouns “you”, “we”, “I” etc. It is rather significant for it has several types and can be widely used.

Hedging with verbs

The verbs “to appear” and “to seem” are put to use whenever it is necessary to relieve oneself of responsibility for the stated words.

It seems that people finally understand the problem of global pollution and start to take action.
It appears that the news reports are talking about the same thing today.

The profit of the company seems to be growing.

The cyclone appears to be changing.

This way the assumptions sound quite dependable because they create the impression of being based on trustworthy sources. However, they don’t seem too absolute in case they turn up to be wrong.

You could also use the modal verb “would” to make everything even more distant.

It would seem that his siblings also claim an interest in property.

It would appear that officials haven’t made a decision yet.

The joint-stock company would seem to be preparing for selling its shares.

They would appear to have troubles with paying taxes.

Hedging with noun phrases

It is natural that noun phrases with a tentative meaning are applied in this kind of hedging because they have the same purpose as the previous type of the academic writing tool..

There is little chance that this candidate will win this year elections.

There is some doubt on the subject of educational reforms as it is a very serious step.

There is no evidence that this politician has committed a crime.

There is a substantial percentage of people who take medication without prescription.

Hedging with the passive

The passive voice is a well-known means of reporting with a distinct pragmatic meaning. It is the perfect construction to hedge in academic papers.

It is widely recognized that the future depends on the Net generation.

It is believed that the cause of the fire wasn’t accidental.

It is not known if the judge has made his decision in favour of the accused.

It has been shown that the findings of the research are very crucial for the science world.

Obviously, all the above mentioned ways of hedging make writing academically “decorated” and they are to be used when it is essential to render facts in an ambiguous perspective.

Emphatic Structures in Argumentative Essay

June 30th, 2015 No comments

machina logoWorking on an argumentative essay for the college or university task? Or, perhaps, you know that an argumentative essay will be the part of the exam? In any case, you, as the author of the project, would probably like to add some emphasis to the essay content. There are various ways of how one can add emphasis to the argumentative essay. For instance, you can make use of the forms described below in order to emphasize your statements while expressing your viewpoints on the subject, making some well reasoned suggestions, disagreeing, expressing frustration and so on.

“It was” or “It is” construction…

As a rule, when we see the sentences that are introduced by the constructions “It was” or “It is”, it is usually because the author wants to put emphasis on a certain object or subject. Then the relative pronoun goes, right after the clause that is called introductory. For instance: “It was she who broke the window. It is the cold rainy weather that calms her down.”

“What” sentence introduction…

When there’s a clause starting with “What”, it is also used by the writers in order to put emphasis on a certain object or subject. The clause that is introduced with the help of “What” is applied at the sentence subject as is followed by “to be”. For instance: “What she says isn’t useful for kids. What they crave for is a skillful assistant.”

Strong emphasize with “Do” and “Did”…

You have surely dealt with the auxiliary verbs “Do” and “Did” that, as everyone tends to believe, do not have positive meaning. For instance: “She visited the museum. NOT She did visit the museum.” But the fact is that once you need to strongly emphasize some aspect these auxiliary verbs can be easily applied. For instance: “Alexander did meet Angelina. I do believe that we all can go to Paris next year.” Remember that this form is usually used in order to state that something is opposite to the beliefs of the other individual.


In general, inversion in English argumentative essays can be used in questions. In all the other cases, the use of inversion is usually optional. Besides, the writers must be careful when dealing with it in order to avoid overusing since in such case inversion can sound too strange. It is an obvious thing that the number one purpose of inverting verbs and subjects is to put the direct emphasis on what the author finds the most crucial segment of the sentence at a particular time. Typically, inversion takes place either after certain sentence patterns (for instance, no sooner than) or some lead words (for instance, nor, never).

Passive constructions…

In this case the author is about to emphasis not who did it, but what actually happened. For instance: “All words about the wedding have been said by the guests. This hotel room will be booked by a famous rock star.”


When the question is about using fronting in an argumentative essay, the author usually changes the order of the sentence words to start with a cause that typically never comes first. For instance: “Where he took this money from, I have no idea. Difficult as it may seem, it is not the hardest task to cope with.”

Irony as a Stylistic Device in Essay

June 8th, 2015 No comments

funny street signsIrony is one of various rhetoric devices and literary techniques that are used by the writers and artists in their professional activities. There are tons of various definitions regarding what irony actually is, but the most popular one states that irony is a speech figure that serves as a incongruity or contradiction between what is expected and what actually happens.

In general, there are three types of irony used within an academic essay. Let us explore the basic aspects of each irony type.

Verbal Irony

This is the case when irony is used through words to mean something that is completely different from what an individual says. The most recognizable type of verbal irony is called sarcasm that enables an individual to say exactly the opposite to what she means, usually for a comedic effect.

This kind of irony is used intentionally in the conversations, where an individual aims to be understood as meaning something that differs from what her words actually mean. For instance: “Oh, I can’t wait to read the five hundred page book for the literature lesson” This is the example of the verbal irony that is used in order to express someone’s frustration.

Dramatic Irony

The dramatic irony is usually used in various works of art such as books, films, plays and poems. As a rule, it occurs when the audience knows something that the characters have no idea of. In a narrative essay that tells a story about a detective trying to reveal who’s the criminal leader of the city, the readers already know that it’s his partner.

Situation Irony

When dealing with this type of irony, the author faces a certain discrepancy between the things that are expected to happen and that actually happen at the end. Situation irony is always there when the exact opposite of what you’re waiting for, happens.

However, situation irony is a great tool to bring tragedy into the essay. As readers, we usually expect that a man will feel grief once he finds out that his wife has died in a car accident. However, you, as the author, can create the situation, in which a widower feels sort of relief, when he gets to know his couple if dead. While his wife treated him right and was in love with him, he was confined by their relationship, and her death brought him a strong sense of freedom. This is exactly the opposite of what the readers usually expect – the situation irony as it is.

To Use or Not to Use?

If you’re faced with the question whether it is appropriate to use irony in your essay or not, make certain to ask yourself – “what is the purpose of my writing?” If you’re required to advocate for some common clauses, or to evaluate the subjects that are familiar to you, this is where judicious irony will come handy. Who knows, maybe your ironic points will be something that your reader will remember for years?

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How can be written research report?

May 27th, 2013 No comments

Like with other essay papers, writing report is not a simple task. You need to give an introduction to your essay paper. Because the essay is designed to be persuasive, you need to craft the introduction in such a way that it captures or attracts your readers’ attention. It is the introduction part that determines whether or not a reader will read your argument(s) for or against the outlined topic.

The first step on write report is determined and crafting an argument you wish to put across. Ideally, the argument should be one that you are passionate about. This is because you will enjoy writing on the same. You need to give yourself adequate time to think out a topic that allows you to bring out strong argument(s) for or against. It is also important to go through the writing report to have an idea of the outline you need to stick to when writing.

With the introductory part over, you need to carefully plan on how to structure the body section. A quick look at an example of the write report brings out the best way to craft this section. Ideally, this section should have three paragraphs with each paragraph addressing a major point or argument. It is within these paragraphs that you must justify your argument(s) in a report tone. One critical thing that you cannot ignore on write research report is to make use of research study findings. These should re-enforce your argument for or against the subject matter. It is very important to craft your paragraphs in such a way that one paragraph flows smoothly into the other.

Just in the same way that knowing how to start an essay is important, knowing how to end it is similarly important. You need to craft your conclusion in such a way that it leaves a lasting impression in your readers’ mind. The best way to do it is to restate your major argument(s) in brief. It is always very important to give yourself time to proofread your essay several days after writing to be able to identify any mistakes.

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How to write project report

April 30th, 2013 No comments

Essay writing might seem to be a simple task. But when you have to address questions like ‘how to write project report’ or ‘how to write a school report’, there needs to be more clarity. Writing a normal report for an event is entirely different from writing a college or school report.

How to write a project report that will attract the attention of the examiners? If an evaluator has to provide more scores for an essay, it must have a unique content and an interesting title. The body of the essay must be justifying the point stated in the title and introduction. If the report is actually an academic dissertation work, then it is surely not for a commercial purpose. Thus in such reports, there will be a hypothesis as well as supporting citation reports. Just like the keywords in articles, the academic project report will be full of scientific terminologies. It might be quite difficult to present a project report with all these details and it would be even more difficult to make an article to match the academic standards. But if you clearly realize the interest of the examiners, you can crack the nut easily.

Before learning on how to write project report, the purpose of the essay must be clearly understood. If it is written for the high school exam, it has to be dealt differently. If it is written for a college report, then it has to be handled more seriously and with more citation sources. General statements will not be entertained in college reports. Every statement that you mention in the report must have supporting documents. Examiners will just look at the final report for evaluation. You might have done hundreds of experiments. But if they are not documented in the report, it will not be able to provide good scores for your work.

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