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Sample Essay “How New Physical Education Programs Differ from the Old Ones?”

December 16th, 2015 No comments

football players on a fieldAs the level of physical activity among kids has become lower in recent years, the little ones have become more overweight and of course, less fit. In order to turn this trend around, some fitness experts believe, PE classes must be reorganized so there’s more emphasis on various fitness activities, instead of team sports. So, in terms of kids’ health benefits, how far have we progressed over the last twenty years?


In Colonial times, no physical education programs existed due to certain hardships settlers incurred in America. In 1776, the first gymnastics lessons were brought to America by the immigrants from Europe. But in contrast to what we have nowadays, early American physical education was concentrated mainly on writing, reading and arithmetic. Moreover, it wasn’t a part of a school curriculum till the moment, when the Civil War was over.

Mid 20th Century

It was President Eisenhower, who set the President’s Council on Physical Fitness. The recommendations described in it included providing more equipment, time and staff for physical education instruction in the country’s schools. The typical activities included 600-yard run or walk, the broad jump and softball throw.

Late 20th Century

There was no improvement in PE in 1970s. However, by the middle of 1980s, the school fitness elements included pull-ups, sit-ups and flexed-arm hangs, as well as one-mile run or walk. Nowadays, these physical activities have been strengthened greatly to match the modern PE programs.

Early 21st Century

At the beginning of the 21st century, the majority of states did not require any specific time to be spent in PE classes. According to the journal ‘Education Next’ (edition 2006), from 1991 to 2003, the number of high school students in the United States participating in everyday physical education classes dropped from 42% to 28%. Comparing it to the present days, it is important to mention that in accordance with the recent studies, secondary and middle schools all over the country devote too little time in their curriculum to PE. As for the everyday physical education programs among the grades from 6 to 12, they are simply almost non-existent.

Helping little kids and youth find enjoyment, success and self-confidence in what is related to their physical strength and abilities is crucial. The physical education personnel must provide instructional experiences that involve students and require them to be engaged in the most appropriate ways. The programs of physical education segment should enable the high school students to set goals, make serious decisions, solve the severest problems, as well as demonstrate the most important learning outcomes.

Experts say that now there is still no special measure that can be used to evaluate the PE programs quality, despite the variety of standards set by the US Heart Association and National Association of Sport and PE. The experts suggest that all these standards leave a lot to be desired.

Dauer, Victor P., and Robert P. Pangrazi. 1983. Physical Education for Elementary School Children.Minneapolis: Burges Publishing Company.
Massengale, John D. and Richard A. Swanson, ed. 1997. The History of Exercise and Sport Science.Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. “Guidelines for School and Community Programs to Promote Lifelong Physical Activity Among Young People.” Journal of School Health 67: 202–219.
Van Dalen, Deobold, and Bruce L. Bennett. 1971. A World History of Physical Education, Cultural, Philosophical, Comparative. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. 1999. Physical Education for Lifelong Fitness, the Physical Best Teacher’s Guide. Windsor, ON: Human Kinetics.
Ontario Physical and Health Education Association. 2000. Health and Physical Education Curriculum Support: Kindergarten to Grade 10. Toronto, ON: Ontario Physical and Health Education Association.
Internicola, Dorene. Physical Education: How Innovative School Programs Can Boost Kids’ Fitness, Reuters, February 9, 2015.

7 Steps to a Perfect Summary of Your Research Paper

December 16th, 2015 No comments

writing the essayTo accomplish a research paper perfectly one should take some essential steps. Doing a thorough research summary is an integral part of the process. In order to complete a perfect summary, one first should get the paper done. Then, check all of key ideas, and pack them into a short document.

Review Your Report

The best way to start working on the research paper summary is by conducting a detailed review of the project. As you dig deeper into it, make sure to extract the key ideas. In case you have organized your research project with headings and sections, the work will go faster and easier. When you focus on the main ideas of the report, stick to the essence of the idea to limit the point. If not, you will get drawn in an endless sea of information and your summary will turn into a mess.

Do the Literature Review

Go on with the literature review. Make certain to list down the most important arguments taken from the literature that has been reviewed in the research project, whether they support or go against the paper you’re summarizing.

Provide a Thesis Statement

If you want to create a perfectly-written summary, this is a must. Make certain to produce a thesis statement that clearly claims what you’re willing to achieve through your paper.

Follow Three Key Requirements

When working on a summary for your research project, there are three basic requirements to write in accordance with. First, the summary must cover the original as a whole. Second, this piece of text should be a condensed extract. And finally, the summary must be presented as the filtered and brief version of the material, discussed with your own words.

Provide the First Draft

Adjust the length of the first draft in accordance with the content order of the paper and how you’re going to use the summary later. Make sure to write about the methods, hypotheses and the results first, then go on to the introduction and discussion.

NEVER Make Unnecessary Remarks

Keep away from unnecessary and pointless remarks that have nothing to do with the research paper content while writing summaries. Do your best to write only on what is included in the project and, more importantly, keep to the point.

Put Your Opinion Aside

There is no need to provide your own points of view on the research paper. Keep in mind that you are not working on the position paper, but on a research paper summary.   

When you get to the research paper summary writing point, there are two things you should remember. The first is the importance of being brief. In case you give too many details, your reader will most likely lose his/her motivation to proceed to the full version of the project. Second, use the terms that require no explanation since any sort of extra definitions will only make your summary too long.

Repetition in Writing Is Bad. So, Let’s Call It “Parallelism”

December 16th, 2015 No comments

stylistic devicesParallelism is a special tool that is used to make some of the moments in literature both – alluring and memorable. Make sure to know all the points that make parallelism such a crucial and powerful device.

Have you ever wondered why some of the quotations are easier to keep in mind than the others? Why some of the speeches leave more significant impact than the ones delivered by the other people? Just take a look at the famous speech of Martin Luther King – “I Have a Dream”. Just read the following: “‘I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today?

Without a doubt, you do not remember the speech from A to Z, but you may know some of its parts, as well as the ultimate point that King’s speech was famous for. To cut the story, the success of the King’s speech is due to its part that includes a fantastic use of parallelism. When the matter concerns parallelism, the question is about a special literary device, in which the sentence segments are grammatically the same or are pretty similar in its construction. It can be any phrase, word or even the whole sentence that can be repeated. The widely known “I have a dream” repetition from the King’s speech turns the speech into a rhythmic and charming piece, as well as never-to-be-forgotten.

The classification of repetition is maintained in accordance with the compositional patterns. There are actually nine different patterns but we will discuss several of them within the frames of repetition.


This is what they call anaphoric repetition or the repetition of any phrase or any word that is placed at the beginning of several consecutive sentences (better for her, better for him). Rather often the anaphoric repetition is used in poetry than in the prose.


When it comes to epiphora, the matter relates to the epiphoric repetition, which is the kind of repetition, when the same phrase or the same word is placed at the consecutive sentences end. This literature tool contributes even more to the rhythmic organization of a speech since the intonation increases and there’s solid identity at the sentences final position. A good example of epiphora can be viewed in the famous TV series “Dr. House”, when Dr. Wilson says: “I’ve gottа be your dаmn conscience. I’m tired of being your conscience. I don’t enjoy being your conscience” to his colleague.


Framing is considered a kind of repetition that is built in the form of a frame, that is to say – the syntactical unit initial parts, usually in a paragraph and are repeated right at the paragraph end.

Chain repetition

“They strangers, and we strangers; they a pair,

And we a solitary pair like them.” (William Wordsworth). That’s the example of what they call chain repetition. This kind of repetition is used to smoothly develop logical reasoning. In other words, the writer is actually arranging a thread of a couple of successive anadiplosis.

In conclusion it can be said that all exiting kinds of repetition have their own emotional loading that sometimes is supposed to cause strong emotions, in other words – to make emotions arise subconsciously.